A present participle is the –ing form the verb (talking,playing). In the Structure section of the TOEFL test a present participle can cause confusion because it can be either a part of the verb or an adjective. It is part of the verb when it is preceded by some form of the verb be.

The man is talking to his friend

Verb

In this sentence talking is part of the verb because it is accompanied by is.

A present participle is an adjective when it is not accompanied by some form of the verb be.

The man   talking   to his friend has a beard.

Adjective

In this sentence talking is an adjective and not part of the verb because it is not accompanied by some form of be. The verb in this sentence is has.

The following example shows how a present participle can be confused with the verb in the Structure section of the TOEFL test.

 

Example 1:

The child …………. Playing in the yard is my son.

(a)    Now

(b)   Is

(c)    He

(d)   Was

In this example, if you look at only the first words of the sentence, it appears that child is the subject and playing is part of the verb. If you think that playing is part of the verb,you might choose answer (B), is, or answer (D), was, to complete the verb. However, these two answer are incorrect because playing is not part of the verb. You should recognize that playing is a participial adjective rather than a verb because there is another verb in the sentence (is). In this sentence there is a complete subject (child) and a complete verb (is),so this sentence does not need another subject or verb. The best answer here is (A).

The following chart outlines what you should remember about present participles :

PRESENT PARTICIPLES

A present participle is the –ing form of the verb. The present participle can be (I) part of the verb or (2) an adjective. It is part of the verb when it is a accompanied by some from of the verb be. It is an adjective when it is not accompanied by some form of the verb be.

  1. The boy is standing in the corner
  2. The boy standing in the corner was naughty

 

TOEFL EXERCISE Skill 4: Each of the following sentences contains one or more present participles. Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. Circle the present participles and label them as adjectives or verbs. There indicate if the sentences are correct ( C ) or Incorrect ( I ).

  1. ———– The companies offering the lowest prices will have the most customers.
  2. ———– Those travelers are completing  their trip on Delta should report to Gate three.
  3. ———– The artisans were demonstrating various handicrafts at booths throughout the fair.
  4. ———– The fraternities are giving the wildest parties attract the most new pledges.
  5. ———– The first team winning four games is awarded the championship.
  6. ———– The speaker was trying to make his point was often interrupted vociferously.
  7. ———– The fruits were rotting because of the moisture in the crates carrying them to market.
  8. ———– Any students desiring official transcripts should complete the appropriate form.
  9. ———– The advertisements were announcing the half-day sale received a lot of attention.
  10. ———– The spices flavoring the meal were quite distinctive.

Answer Exercise Skill 4 :

  1. Correct
  2. Incorrect
  3. Correct
  4. Incorrect
  5. Correct
  6. Incorrect
  7. Correct
  8. Correct
  9. Incorrect
  10. Correct

Refrensi : ” Longman Preparation Course For The TOEFL TEST – THE PAPER TEST-, PHILIPPS”

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